The increased frequency of cardiovascular disease observed in hemodialysis patients is secondary to the combination of many traditional (age, male sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia) and novel and uremia-related (inflammation, uremic toxins, adipokine imbalance, coagulation disorders, protein-energy wasting, volume overload, endothelial dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, and subclinical hypothyroidism) risk factors. Usually, in the latter group, oxidative stress is included. However, after decades of research, it remains essentially unknown if oxidative stress has a causative role in the development of cardiovascular disease in long-term hemodialysis patients because adequate longitudinal studies are lacking. Data deriving from cross-sectional studies suggest that biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with cardiovascular disease prevalence. Conversely, conflicting and inconclusive results have been obtained on the association between oxidative stress and coronary artery calcification, atherosclerosis, and all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related outcome. It is desirable that further studies are conducted on this topic in the near future.