Weathering the Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: Therapeutic Implications

Giulia Iannaccone, Roberto Scacciavillani, Marco Giuseppe Del Buono, Massimiliano Camilli, Claudio Ronco, Carl J. Lavie, Antonio Abbate, Filippo Crea, Massimo Massetti, Nadia Aspromonte

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

19 Citazioni (Scopus)


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged in Wuhan, Hubei-China, as responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and then spread rapidly worldwide. While most individuals remain asymptomatic or develop only mild symptoms, approximately 5% develop severe forms of COVID-19 characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple-organ failure (MOF) that usually require intensive-care support and often yield a poor prognosis. Summary: The pathophysiology of COVID-19 is far from being completely understood, and the lack of effective treatments leads to a sense of urgency to develop new therapeutic strategies based on pathophysiological assumptions. The exaggerated cytokine release in response to viral infection, a condition known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS) or cytokine storm, is emerging as the mechanism leading to ARDS and MOF in COVID-19, thus endorsing the hypothesis that properly timed anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategies could improve patients' clinical outcomes and prognosis. Key Messages: The objective of this article is to explore and comment on the potential role of the promising immunomodulatory therapies using pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to overcome the dysregulated proinflammatory response in COVID-19.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)277-287
Numero di pagine11
RivistaCardioRenal Medicine
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2020


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Betacoronavirus
  • CCR5 Receptor Antagonists
  • COVID-19
  • Chloroquine
  • Coronavirus Infections
  • Cytokine Release Syndrome
  • Cytokine storm
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • HIV Antibodies
  • Hemoperfusion
  • Humans
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Immunization, Passive
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Immunomodulation
  • Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
  • Janus Kinase Inhibitors
  • Lung Injury
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Multiple Organ Failure
  • Pandemics
  • Plasma Exchange
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Pneumonia, Viral
  • Receptors, Interleukin-6
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Therapy
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors


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