Objectives: To compare the efficacy of dolutegravir plus lamivudine dual therapy (DT) with that of dolutegravir plus two NRTIs triple therapy (TT) as switch strategies. Methods: A multicentre cohort of HIV-positive, HBsAg-negative patients with viral suppression (HIV-RNA ≤50 copies/mL) switching to DT or TT was retrospectively selected from the ARCA database. The effect of DT versus TT on virological failure (VF; defined as two consecutive HIV-RNA values >50 copies/mL or one HIV-RNA value ≥200 copies/mL) was evaluated by multivariable Cox regression models, overall and after stratifying for the presence of NRTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Results: From December 2014 to June 2020, 628 patients were eligible: 118 (18.8%) started tenofovir/emtricitabine/dolutegravir, 306 (48.7%) abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir and 204 (32.5%) lamivudine/dolutegravir. The DT group had significantly higher nadir and baseline CD4 counts, a higher duration of viral suppression and a lower prevalence of RAMs at historical genotype. Overall, 41 VF occurred after a median of 1.7 years of follow-up, with a lower, but not statistically significant, rate for DT [versus TT, adjusted HR (aHR) = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.25-1.34]. However, DT was associated with less VF in the absence of RAMs when compared with tenofovir-based TT (aHR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.06-0.67), but not with abacavir-based TT (aHR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.17-1.11). Conversely, in the setting of pre-existing M184V/I, DT showed a trend to increased risk of VF (versus tenofovir-based TT, aHR = 137.50, 95% CI = 4.24-4464.06; versus abacavir-based TT, aHR = 33.88, 95% CI = 1.75-656.47). Conclusions: Lamivudine/dolutegravir maintenance DT showed similar efficacy to dolutegravir-based TT; however, past M184V/I may favour VF.
- Integrase inhibitors (INIs)
- NRTI resistanceassociated mutations (RAMs)
- dual therapy (DT)
- HIV-positive persons