In order to effectively develop personalized medicine for kidney diseases we urgently need to develop highly accurate biomarkers for use in the clinic, since current biomarkers of kidney damage (changes in serum creatinine and/or urine albumin excretion) apply to a later stage of disease, lack accuracy, and are not connected with molecular pathophysiology. Analysis of urine peptide content (urinary peptidomics) has emerged as one of the most attractive areas in disease biomarker discovery. Urinary peptidome analysis allows the detection of short and long-term physiological or pathological changes occurring within the kidney. Urinary peptidomics has been applied extensively for several years now in renal patients, and may greatly improve kidney disease management by supporting earlier and more accurate detection, prognostic assessment, and prediction of response to treatment. It also promises better understanding of kidney disease pathophysiology, and has been proposed as a "liquid biopsy" to discriminate various types of renal disorders. Furthermore, proteins being the major drug targets, peptidome analysis may allow one to evaluate the effects of therapies at the protein signaling pathway level. We here review the most recent findings on urinary peptidomics in the setting of the most common kidney diseases.