Urinary p-cresol is elevated in young French children with autism spectrum disorder: a replication study

Andrea Urbani, Stefano Gabriele, Roberto Sacco, Sonia Cerullo, Cristina Neri, Gabriele Tripi, Joëlle Malvy, Catherine Barthelemy, Frédérique Bonnet-Brihault, Antonio M. Persico

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

43 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

The aromatic compound p-cresol (4-methylphenol) has been found elevated in the urines of Italian autistic children up to 8 years of age. The present study aims at replicating these initial findings in an ethnically distinct sample and at extending them by measuring also the three components of urinary p-cresol, namely p-cresylsulfate, p-cresylglucuronate and free p-cresol. Total urinary p-cresol, p-cresylsulfate and p-cresylglucuronate were significantly elevated in 33 French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases compared with 33 sex-and age-matched controls (p<0.05). This increase was limited to ASD children aged <= 8 years (p<0.01), and not older (p=0.17). Urinary levels of p-cresol and p-cresylsulfate were associated with stereotypic, compulsive/repetitive behaviors (p<0.05), although not with overall autism severity. These results confirm the elevation of urinary p-cresol in a sizable set of small autistic children and spur interest into biomarker roles for p-cresol and p-cresylsulfate in autism.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)463-470
Numero di pagine8
RivistaBiomarkers
Volume19
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2014

Keywords

  • Gut flora
  • neurotoxicity

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