Proteomic platforms can be classified in bottom-up strategies, which analyze the sample after proteolytic digestion, and top-down strategies, which analyze the intact naturally occurring proteome. Bottom-up platforms are high-throughput because they can investigate a large number of proteins, regardless of their dimension. Nonetheless, information on post-translational modifications (PTMs) can be lost, especially those regarding naturally occurring cleavages and alternative splicing. Top-down platforms cannot cover vast proteomes, however, they can disclose subtle structural variations occurring during protein maturation and allow label-free relative quantifications in an unlimited number of samples. A repertoire of 256 masses belonging to naturally occurring proteins and peptides consistently detected by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of the acidic soluble fraction of human whole saliva is presented in this study. Of them, 233 have been identified, while 23 are still pending for the definitive characterization. The present review reports average and mono-isotopic masses of the peptides and proteins detected, RP-HPLC elution times, PTMs, origin and quali-quantitative variations observed in several physiological and pathological conditions. The information reported can be a reference for users of top-down RP-HPLC-ESI-MS proteomic platforms applied to the study of the human salivary proteome as well as of other human bodily fluids.