Toll-Like Receptors and Tissue Remodeling: The Pro/Cons Recent Findings

Alessandra Micera, Filippo Biamonte, Gigliola Sica, Bijorn Omar Balzamino, Antonio Di Zazzo, Stefano Bonini

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

12 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

The Toll-like Receptor (TLR) family ensures prompt response towards pathogens, protecting the host against infections, and guarantees a realistic balance between protective and detrimental activities. Multiple regulating mechanisms characterize TLR activity that is not limited to innate and adaptive antimicrobial immune responses, as observed in the inflammatory (either infective, allergic, or autoimmune) responses associated with tissue remodeling. Following the insult and the arise of inflammatory response, tissue remodeling takes place and might develop in fibrosis, depending on microenvironment as a result of imbalanced fibroblasts (FBs) and myofibroblasts (myoFBs) activation/survival. The process is driven by an epithelial-fibroblast-immune cell cross-talk. While the main FB function is the matrix metabolism for tissue homeostasis or repair, the myoFB differentiation represents a crucial step in attempting repair of injury. FBs/myoFBs provide more than structural support at site of injury, synthesizing and/or reacting to different cytokines, growth factors, neuromediators and soluble/lipid mediators. TLR-bearing FBs/myoFBs might contribute at the innate immune level, providing a second line of protection/defense as well as being a target/effector cell of tissue remodeling. TLRs might also interfere with acute inflammation as well as with established fibrosis, triggering structural/functional changes in agreement with the genetic background, the site of lesion, the entity of associated infection, the poor blood circulation or the pharmacological treatments, all together strictly influencing tissue repair/remodeling process. This review will focus on the recent findings on TLRs at launch and long-lasting tissue remodeling process, that strongly suggest TLRs as optional targets for future therapies.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)531-544
Numero di pagine14
RivistaJournal of Cellular Physiology
Volume231
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2016

Keywords

  • Cell Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Fibroblasts
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Medicine (all)
  • Physiology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptors

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