A systematic review of the current treatment options and of the outcomes of penile carcinoma has been performed with special focus on controversial issues. A MedLine search using specified search terms was done during the period 1988 - January 2013. Demolitive surgery is considered as the "gold standard" treatment of invasive penile carcinoma staged higher than T2, but negative psychological outcomes were reported. On the other hand, conservative surgical techniques have been associated with higher recurrence rates. Potency-sparing technique (glansectomy and apexes sparing) preserves penile length: the reconstruction of glans anatomy and function is a key point to restore anatomy and sexual functions. Techniques such as glanduloplasty have given satisfactory anatomic, functional and sexual outcomes. Lymphadenectomy is indicated in any case of inguinal palpable nodes that persist after a course of antibiotic therapy, but also in all the cases staged T2 or higher, or in any high-grade penile cancer. It is still being debated the extension of inguinal lymphadenectomy for penile cancer: unilateral, bilateral, and extended to pelvic lymph nodes. Due to the specific radioresistance of penile cancer, radiation therapy is currently indicated in case of unresectable penile cancers with palliative intent. Chemotherapy is indicated as adjuvant therapy for stage T1-T3, N1-3, M0, or as neo-adjuvant therapy in the event of extensive pelvic and inguinal lymphadenopathies, or as palliative treatment in patients with unresectable or metastatic cancers. New chemotherapy agents such as Cis - platinum and Taxanes have shown promising results in early trials.
- penile cancer