The Who, What, Why, When, How and Where of Vasospastic Angina

Filippo Crea, John F. Beltrame, Juan Carlos Kaski, Hisao Ogawa, Peter Ong, Udo Sechtem, Hiroaki Shimokawa, C. Noel Bairey Merz

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

53 Citazioni (Scopus)


Ischemic heart disease involves both "structural" and/or "functional" disorders of the coronary circulation. Structural atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is well recognized, with established diagnostic and treatment strategies. In contrast, "functional CAD" has received limited attention and is seldom actively pursued in the investigation of ischemic heart disease. Vasospastic angina encompasses "functional CAD" attributable to coronary artery spasm and this "state of the art" consensus statement reviews contemporary aspects of this disorder. Patients with vasospastic angina typically present with angina at rest that promptly responds to short-acting nitrates and is associated with transient ischemic ECG changes. Although spontaneous episodes may be documented, provocative spasm testing may be required to confirm the diagnosis. It is important to diagnose vasospastic angina because it may be associated with major adverse events that can be prevented with the use of appropriate vasodilator therapy (eg, calcium-channel blockers) and the avoidance of aggravating stimuli (eg, smoking). Future studies are required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology, natural history and effective treatments for patients refractory to conventional therapy.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)289-298
Numero di pagine10
RivistaCirculation Journal
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2016


  • Coronary artery disease
  • Coronary spasm
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Variant angina
  • Vasospastic angina


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