The S100B story: from biomarker to active factor in neural injury

Amelia Toesca Di Castellazzo, Valentina Corvino, Maria Concetta Geloso, Fabrizio Michetti, Nadia D'Ambrosi, Maria Ausiliatrice Puglisi, Alessia Serrano, Elisa Marchese

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

56 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

S100B is a Ca 2+ -binding protein mainly concentrated in astrocytes. Its levels in biological fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, peripheral and cord blood, urine, saliva, amniotic fluid) are recognized as a reliable biomarker of active neural distress. Although the wide spectrum of diseases in which the protein is involved (acute brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, congenital/perinatal disorders, psychiatric disorders) reduces its specificity, its levels remain an important aid in monitoring the trend of the disorder. Mounting evidence now points to S100B as a Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern molecule which, when released at high concentration, through its Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts, triggers tissue reaction to damage in a series of different neural disorders. This review addresses this novel scenario, presenting data indicating that S100B levels and/or distribution in the nervous tissue of patients and/or experimental models of different neural disorders, for which the protein is used as a biomarker, are directly related to the progress of the disease: acute brain injury (ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, traumatic injury), neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis), congenital/perinatal disorders (Down syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia-1), psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders), inflammatory bowel disease. In many cases, over-expression/administration of the protein induces worsening of the disease, whereas its deletion/inactivation produces amelioration. This review points out that the pivotal role of the protein resulting from these data, opens the perspective that S100B may be regarded as a therapeutic target for these different diseases, which appear to share some common features reasonably attributable to neuroinflammation, regardless their origin. (Figure presented.).
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)168-187
Numero di pagine20
RivistaJournal of Neurochemistry
Volume148
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2019

Keywords

  • Biochemistry
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • DAMP
  • S100B
  • biomarker
  • neuroinflammation

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