Abstract

Selenium is a trace element, nutritionally classified as an essential micronutrient, involved in maintaining the correct function of several enzymes incorporating the selenocysteine residue, namely the selenoproteins. The human selenoproteome including 25 proteins is extensively described here. The most relevant selenoproteins, including glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases and iodothyronine deiodinases are required for the proper cellular redox homeostasis as well as for the correct thyroid function, thus preventing oxidative stress and related diseases. This review summarizes the main advances on oxidative stress with a focus on selenium metabolism and transport. Moreover, thyroid-related disorders are discussed, considering that the thyroid gland contains the highest selenium amount per gram of tissue, also for future possible therapeutic implication.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)423-449
Numero di pagine27
RivistaCURRENT MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
Volume27
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2020

Keywords

  • Deiodinases
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Oxidative stress
  • Redox homeostasis
  • Selenium
  • Selenoproteins
  • Thyroid Gland
  • Thyroid dysfunction

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