Bone metabolism appears to influence insulin secretion and sensitivity, and insulin promotes bone formation in animals, but similar evidence in humans is limited. The objectives of this study are to explore if bone turnover markers were associated with insulin secretion and sensitivity and to determine if bone turnover markers predict changes in insulin secretion and sensitivity. The study population encompassed 576 non-diabetic adult men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n=503) or impaired glucose regulation (IGR; n=73). Baseline markers of bone resorption (CTX) and formation (P1NP) were determined in the fasting state and after a 2-h hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamp. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed at baseline, and the OGTT was repeated after 3years. There were no differences in bone turnover marker levels between NGT and IGR. CTX and P1NP levels decreased by 8.0% (p<0.001) and 1.9% (p<0.01) between baseline and steady-state during the clamp. Fasting plasma glucose was inversely associated with CTX and P1NP both before and after adjustment for recruitment centre, age, BMI, smoking and physical activity. However, baseline bone turnover markers were neither associated with insulin sensitivity (assessed using hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp and OGTT) nor with insulin secretion capacity (based on IVGTT and OGTT) at baseline or at follow-up. Although inverse associations between fasting glucose and markers of bone turnover were identified, this study cannot support an association between insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy, non-diabetic men.