The Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS): An International Mood Network (IMN) validation study of a new mixed mood rating scale

Gabriele Sani*, Paul A. Vöhringer, Sergio A. Barroilhet, Alexia E. Koukopoulos, S. Nassir Ghaemi

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

22 Citazioni (Scopus)


Background: It has been proposed that the broad major depressive disorder (MDD) construct is heterogenous. Koukopoulos has provided diagnostic criteria for an important subtype within that construct, “mixed depression” (MxD), which encompasses clinical pictures characterized by marked psychomotor or inner excitation and rage/anger, along with severe depression. This study provides psychometric validation for the first rating scale specifically designed to assess MxD symptoms cross-sectionally, the Koukopoulos Mixed Depression Rating Scale (KMDRS). Methods: 350 patients from the international mood network (IMN) completed three rating scales: the KMDRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). KMDRS’ psychometric properties assessed included Cronbach's alpha, inter-rater reliability, factor analysis, predictive validity, and Receiver Operator Curve analysis. Results: Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76; 95% CI 0.57, 0.94) and interrater reliability (kappa = 0.73) were adequate. Confirmatory factor analysis identified 2 components: anger and psychomotor excitation (80% of total variance). Good predictive validity was seen (C-statistic = 0.82 95% CI 0.68, 0.93). Severity cut-off scores identified were as follows: none (0–4), possible (5–9), mild (10–15), moderate (16–20) and severe (> 21) MxD. Limitations: Non DSM-based diagnosis of MxD may pose some difficulties in the initial use and interpretation of the scoring of the scale. Moreover, the cross-sectional nature of the evaluation does not verify the long-term stability of the scale. Conclusions: KMDRS was a reliable and valid instrument to assess MxD symptoms.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)9-16
Numero di pagine8
RivistaJournal of Affective Disorders
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2018


  • Adult
  • Affect
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depressive Disorder, Major
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Irritability
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mixed depression
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Observer Variation
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychometrics
  • Psychomotor Agitation
  • Psychomotor agitation
  • ROC Curve
  • Rating scale


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