The human microglial HMC3 cell line: where do we stand? A systematic literature review

Cinzia Dello Russo*, Natalia Cappoli, Isabella Coletta, Daniele Mezzogori, Fabiola Paciello, Giacomo Pozzoli, Pierluigi Navarra, Alessandra Battaglia

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

38 Citazioni (Scopus)


Microglia, unique myeloid cells residing in the brain parenchyma, represent the first line of immune defense within the central nervous system. In addition to their immune functions, microglial cells play an important role in other cerebral processes, including the regulation of synaptic architecture and neurogenesis. Chronic microglial activation is regarded as detrimental, and it is considered a pathogenic mechanism common to several neurological disorders. Microglial activation and function have been extensively studied in rodent experimental models, whereas the characterization of human cells has been limited due to the restricted availability of primary sources of human microglia. To overcome this problem, human immortalized microglial cell lines have been developed. The human microglial clone 3 cell line, HMC3, was established in 1995, through SV40-dependent immortalization of human embryonic microglial cells. It has been recently authenticated by the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC®) and distributed under the name of HMC3 (ATCC®CRL-3304). The HMC3 cells have been used in six research studies, two of which also indicated by ATCC® as reference articles. However, a more accurate literature revision suggests that clone 3 was initially distributed under the name of CHME3. In this regard, several studies have been published, thus contributing to a more extensive characterization of this cell line. Remarkably, the same cell line has been used in different laboratories with other denominations, i.e., CHME-5 cells and C13-NJ cells. In view of the fact that "being now authenticated by ATCC®" may imply a wider distribution of the cells, we aimed at reviewing data obtained with the human microglia cell line clone 3, making the readers aware of this complicated nomenclature. In addition, we also included original data, generated in our laboratory with the HMC3 (ATCC®CRL-3304) cells, providing information on the current state of the culture together with supplementary details on the culturing procedures to obtain and maintain viable cells.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-24
Numero di pagine24
RivistaJournal of Neuroinflammation
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2018


  • C13-NJ
  • CHME-3
  • CHME-5
  • CHME3
  • Chemokines
  • Free oxygen radicals
  • Functional properties
  • HMC-3
  • HMC3
  • Human microglial cell line
  • IL-6
  • Molecular phenotype
  • Molecular signature


Entra nei temi di ricerca di 'The human microglial HMC3 cell line: where do we stand? A systematic literature review'. Insieme formano una fingerprint unica.

Cita questo