Chapter 1 - Introduction. The Unexpected Legacy of the post-WWII Migratory Regime
This chapter illustrates how, in order to understand the current attitude towards immigration in its challenging aspects, it is necessary to go back to the origin of the European migratory regime, based on the concept of Guest Worker. The latter defined migration as a pure economic phenomenon, and denied migrants inclusion in the community of citizens; legitimized a differential treatment towards migrant workers; cultivated the illusion of the temporary nature of migration.
Since it clashes with the philosophy of rights and solidarity embedded in the European democracies, this model has been repeatedly remoulded. Therefore, European countries had to come to terms with the instances of inclusion, equalization, and diversity’s recognition. All this notwithstanding, due to the enduring influence of the postures embedded in an economicistic approach, three main tension factors continue to feature Europe’s attitude towards migration, thus shaping the image of a Janus-faced Europe, perpetually oscillating between opposite tendencies.
Keywords: migration management; migratory regimes; temporary labour model; Europe.
Chapter 2 - The (Un)Ethical Foundations of the Borders of Membership. Inclusion versus Exclusion
After having postponed the question of migrants’ inclusion into the community of legitimate members, European societies have been challenged by the (un)ethical foundations of their membership’s borders, highlighting the ineradicable tension between petitions for inclusion and petitions for exclusion.
On the one hand, European States have experienced both a significant arrival of non-economic migrants, and an ample process of migrants’ inclusion in the system of citizenship rights. On the other hand, they have put in place several attempts to select new entrants, and to modulate the eligibility to rights basing on arguable systems of civic stratification.
Moreover, the formal inclusion in the system of citizenship rights has not been sufficient to neutralize exclusion and discriminatory pressures. The fragile equilibrium between inclusion and exclusion is mirrored both in the restrictions with which foreigners accede to rights, and in the gap between formal and substantial equity, particularly experienced by migrant offspring.
Keywords: citizenship; citizenship rights; civic stratification; national borders; European citizenship; denizenship.
Chapter 3 - The “Schizophrenia” of the European Approach. Equality versus Discrimination
In Europe, the management of labour migration is traditionally based on a concept of complementarity between autochthonous and foreign work. Perceived as advantageous for both employers and domestic workers, this concept is indeed intrinsically discriminatory. Moreover, it has engendered the production of a structurally disadvantaged migrant population, thus negatively impacting on the economy, the welfare system and the social cohesion.
Indeed, despite the legislative developments and the multiple efforts to support their integration and full inclusion, the goal of overcoming the discrimination suffered by immigrants and their children has repeatedly clashed with social expectations about the role of migrant workers, which influence not only policies and practices, but also migrants’ self-perception and their attitude towards the hosting society.
These phenomena represent a very stumbling block for the European future, if only because of the significant demographic weight of the population with a migratory background.
Keywords: migration management; economic migrants; discrimination; equal opportunities; selective migration policies; labour market; educational systems.
Chapter 4 - The Identity Challenge. Diversity versus Uniformity
After having acknowledged the stable settlement of immigrant families and communities, European countries have been i
- European Union
- European identity
- Unione europea
- identità europea
- international migration
- labour market
- mercato del lavoro
- migration policies
- migrazioni internazionali
- politiche migratorie