Objectives: To investigate the quality of sleep and the psychological profiles of a large cohort of Italian patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and to clarify the relationships between these variables and pain. Methods: In this case–control study, 200 patients with BMS vs an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls, recruited in 10 universities, were enrolled. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Numeric Pain Intensity Scale (NRS) and Total Pain Rating Index (T-PRI) were administered. Descriptive statistics, including the Mann–Whitney U test and hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis, were used. Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 5) was present in 78.8% (160) patients with BMS. BMS patients had statistically higher scores in all items of the PSQI and ESS than the healthy controls (p <.001). A depressed mood and anxiety correlated positively with sleep disturbance. The Pearson correlations were 0.570 for the PSQI vs HAM-D (p <.001) and 0.549 for the PSQI vs HAM-A (p <.001). Pain intensity (NRS) poorly correlated to sleep quality; the Pearson correlation was 0.162 for the PSQI vs NRS (p =.021). Conclusions: The BMS patients showed a poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression, as compared with the controls, highlighting the relationships between oral burning, sleep and mood.
- Dentistry (all)
- Otorhinolaryngology2734 Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- insomnia symptoms
- mood disorders