Background and aims: Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance improves prostate cancer detection. The aims of this paper are to verify whether wash-in-rate parameter (speed of contrast uptake in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance) can help to differentiate prostate cancer from nonneoplastic T2-weighted hypointense lesions within prostate gland and to assess a cut-off for prostate cancer diagnosis. Methods: Prospective, monocentric, multi-departmental study. Thirty consecutive patients underwent T2-weighted and dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance, and re-biopsy. T2-weighted hypointense lesions, >5 mm in size, were noted. Lesions were assessed as cancerous (showing mass effect, or no defined margin within transitional zone) and non cancerous (no mass effect) and were compared with histopathology by 2×2 tables. Wash-in-rate of each lesion was calculated and was correlated with histopathology. Student’s t-test was adopted to assess significant differences. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to identify the best cut-off for wash-in-rate in detecting prostate cancer. Results: At re-biopsy, cancer was proven in 43% of patients. On T2-weighted MRI, 111 hypointense lesions ≥5 mm in size were found. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of T2-weighted MRI were 80% (±12.4 CI 95%), 74.6% (±10.1 CI 95%), and 76.5% (±7.9 CI 95%), respectively. Mean WR was 5.8±1.9/s for PCa zones and 2.96±1.44/s for non-PCa zones (p < 0.00000001). At ROC analysis, the best area under curve (AUC) for wash-in-rate parameter was associated to 4.2/s threshold with 82.5% sensitivity (CI±7.07), 97.2%specificity (CI ± 4.99) and 91.2% accuracy (CI±5.27). Eighteen false positive lesions on T2-weighted MRI showed low wash-in-rate values suggesting non-cancer lesions, while in 5/8 false negative cases high wash-in-rate values correctly suggested prostate cancer. Nine lesions with surgically proven cancer were not included in the saturation biopsy scheme, in 2/9 cases the only site of cancer. Conclusions: Wash-in-rate parameter allows to differentiate prostate cancer from non-neoplastic lesions, helping cancer detection in areas not included in the biopsy scheme.
- Prostate cancer, MRI, Dinamic contrast enhanced MRI,