Objectives: To examine synovial tissue (ST) predictors of clinical differentiation in patients with seronegative undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis (UPIA). Methods: Fourty-two patients with IgA/IgM-Rheumatoid Factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies negative UPIA, naive to Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs, underwent Gray Scale (GSUS) and power Doppler (PDUS) evaluation and Ultrasound (US) guided ST biopsy. CD68, CD 3 , CD 21 , CD 20 , and CD 31 synovial expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Whole ST microRNA expression was assessed using miScript miRNA PCR Array. Peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) IL-6, VEGF-A, and VEGF-D levels were measured by ELISA and ST TNF expression was assessed by RT-PCR. Each patient was prospectively monitored and classified at baseline and within 1 year as UPIA, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Spondyloarthritis (SpA) or Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA), respectively. Results: At baseline, CD68 + cells were the most common cells within the lining layer (p < 0.001) in seronegative UPIA, directly correlating with GSUS (R = 0.36; p = 0.02) and PDUS (R = 0.55; p < 0.001). Synovial CD 31+ vessels count directly correlated with GSUS (R = 0.41; p = 0.01) and PDUS (R = 0.52; p < 0.001). During the follow-up, 6 (14.3%) UPIA reached a definite diagnosis (2 RA, 2 SpA and 2 PsA, respectively). At baseline, UPIA who differentiated had higher GSUS (p = 0.01), PDUS scores (p = 0.02) and higher histological scores for CD68+ (p = 0.005 and p = 0.04 for lining and sublining respectively), sublining CD 3+ cells (p = 0.002), CD 31+ vessels count (p < 0.001) and higher IL-6 PB levels (p = 0.01) than patients who remained as UPIA. MiRNA PCR Array showed that among the 86 tested miRNA species, at baseline, miR-346 and miR-214 were significantly down-regulated (p = 0.02 for both) in ST of UPIA who differentiated than in patients who remained as UPIA, inversely correlating with the lining CD68+ cells IHC score (R = -0.641; p = 0.048) and CD 31+ vessels count (R = -0.665; p = 0.036) and with higher baseline ST expression of TNF (p = 0.014). Finally, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that baseline GSUS and PDUS scores ≥1.5 [OR:22.93 (95%CI:0.98-534.30)] and CD 31+ vessels count ≥24.3 [OR:23.66 (95%CI:1.50-373.02)] were independent factors associated with the development of definite arthritis. Conclusions: MiRNA signature, histological and US features of ST may help in the identification of seronegative UPIA with high likelihood of clinical differentiation toward definite seronegative arthritis.
- Medicine (all)
- Synovial tissue biopsy
- Undifferentiated peripheral inflammatory arthritis