Recently, palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) have been increasingly used in many industrial sectors, and this has led to a significant release of nano-sized palladium particles into the environment. However, despite the increase in occupational and general population exposure, information on the potential adverse effects of these PdNPs is still limited and their impact on the immune system constitutes a major health concern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential adverse effects induced by subchronic intravenous administration of PdNPs on the immune system of female Wistar rats by evaluating alterations in Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), Interferon (INF)-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α serum levels. Exposed and control animals were randomly divided into five groups (0, 0.012, 0.12, 1.2, and 12 μg PdNPs per kg body weight) which were treated with repeated intravenous injections of vehicle or PdNPs (on day 1, 30, and 60). Subchronic exposure to PdNPs induced a decreasing trend in serum levels in most of the cytokines investigated, with the highest concentration (12 μg/kg) determining significant inhibitory effects. Overall, these results showed that PdNPs are able to alter cytokine serum levels in subchronically treated Wistar rats, suggesting a possible impact of these xenobiotics on the immune system after long-term exposures.
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- immune system
- subchronic exposure