Standardization, Clinical Validation, and Typicality Norms of a New Test Assessing Semantic Verbal Fluency

Davide Quaranta*, Alessia Caprara, Chiara Piccininni, Maria Gabriella Vita, Guido Gainotti, Camillo Marra

*Autore corrispondente per questo lavoro

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review

10 Citazioni (Scopus)


Objective: Semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tests are widely used in clinical neuropsychology. We propose the standardization and clinical validation of a new SVF test based on the production of names of birds and articles of furniture (Birds and Articles of Furniture test-BAF). Methods: A sample of 268 subjects aged 40 years or more underwent the test. The clinical validation was conducted on subjects affected by amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; N = 106), mild (N = 178), and moderate (N = 114) Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results: The BAF total score was influenced by both age and education, whereas the single scores obtained on BAF were also influenced by gender. The percentage of subjects with pathological score on BAF increased from aMCI (19%) to mild (45.5%) and moderate (71.1%) AD, and receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that the BAF may be highly reliable in distinguishing aMCI and AD patients from healthy subjects. We also provide typicality norms for birds and articles of furniture that could be useful in the assessment of qualitative features of words produced in semantic fluency tests. Conclusions: The BAF test could be a valid and reliable tool in both clinical practice and research on subjects affected by cognitive impairment.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)434-445
Numero di pagine12
RivistaArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2016


  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Amnesia
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction
  • Female
  • Fluency (verbal/nonverbal)
  • Humans
  • Language Disorders
  • Language and language disorders
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Norms/normative studies
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychiatry and Mental Health
  • Reference Values
  • Semantics
  • Verbal Behavior


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