SMAD6 variants in craniosynostosis: genotype and phenotype evaluation

Eduardo Calpena, Araceli Cuellar, Krithi Bala, Sigrid M. A. Swagemakers, Nils Koelling, Simon J. McGowan, Julie M. Phipps, Meena Balasubramanian, Michael L. Cunningham, Sofia Douzgou, Wanda Lattanzi, Jenny E. V. Morton, Deborah Shears, Astrid Weber, Louise C. Wilson, Helen Lord, Tracy Lester, David Johnson, Steven A. Wall, Stephen R. F. TwiggIrene M. J. Mathijssen, Genomics England Research Consortium, Simeon A. Boyadjiev, Andrew O. M. Wilkie

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review


Purpose: Enrichment of heterozygous missense and truncating SMAD6 variants was previously reported in non-syndromic sagittal and metopic synostosis, and interaction of SMAD6 variants with a common polymorphism near BMP2 (rs1884302) was proposed to contribute to inconsistent penetrance. We determined the occurrence of SMAD6 variants in all types of craniosynostosis, evaluated the impact of different missense variants on SMAD6 function, and tested independently whether rs1884302 genotype significantly modifies the phenotype. Methods: We performed resequencing of SMAD6 in 795 unsolved patients with any type of craniosynostosis and genotyped rs1884302 in SMAD6-positive individuals and relatives. We examined the inhibitory activity and stability of SMAD6 missense variants. Results: We found 18 (2.3%) different rare damaging SMAD6 variants, with the highest prevalence in metopic synostosis (5.8%) and an 18.3-fold enrichment of loss-of-function variants compared to gnomAD data (P<10-7). Combined with eight additional variants, ≥20/26 were transmitted from an unaffected parent but rs1884302 genotype did not predict phenotype. Conclusion: Pathogenic SMAD6 variants substantially increase the risk of both nonsyndromic and syndromic presentations of craniosynostosis, especially metopic synostosis. Functional analysis is important to evaluate missense variants. Genotyping of rs1884302 is not clinically useful. Mechanisms to explain the remarkable diversity of phenotypes associated with SMAD6 variants remain obscure.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1498-1506
RivistaGenetics in Medicine
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2020


  • BMP2
  • SMAD6
  • digenic inheritance
  • metopic synostosis
  • protein instability
  • two-locus


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