Siponimod versus placebo in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (EXPAND): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 study

Massimiliano Mirabella, Paolo Andrea Bergmann, Juri Haas, Micaela Terzi, Ludwig Kappos, Amit Bar-Or, Bruce A C Cree, Robert J Fox, Gavin Giovannoni, Ralf Gold, Patrick Vermersch, Douglas L Arnold, Sophie Arnould, Tatiana Scherz, Christian Wolf, Erik Wallström, Frank Dahlke, Anat Achiron, Lutz Achtnichts, Kadriye AganGulsen Akman-Demir, Alison B Allen, Jack P Antel, Alfredo Rodriguez Antiguedad, Michelle Apperson, Angela M Applebee, Guillermo Izquierdo Ayuso, Masayuki Baba, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Rodica Balasa, Belgin Petek Balci, Michael Barnett, Ann Bass, Veit U Becker, Mihaela Bejinariu, Florian Then Bergh, Arnfin Bergmann, Evanthia Bernitsas, Achim Berthele, Virender Bhan, Felix Bischof, Randall John Bjork, Gregg Blevins, Matthias Boehringer, Thomas Boerner, Robert Bonek, James D Bowen, Allen Bowling, Alexey N Boyko, Cavit Boz, Vera Bracknies, Stefan Braune, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Bruno Brochet, Waldemar Brola, Paul Kenneth Brownstone, Miroslav Brozman, Donald Brunet, Ioan Buraga, Margaret Burnett, Mathias Buttmann, Helmut Butzkueven, Jonathan Cahill, Jonathan C Calkwood, William Camu, Mark Cascione, Giovani Castelnovo, Diego Centonze, Joao Cerqueira, Andrew Chan, Andrea Cimprichova, Stanley Cohan, Giancarlo Comi, Jill Conway, Joanna A Cooper, John Corboy, Jorge Correale, Brian Costell, David A Cottrell, Patricia K Coyle, Matthew Craner, Liying Cui, Luis Cunha, Anna Czlonkowska, Ana Martins Da Silva, Joao De Sa, Jérôme De Seze, Marc Debouverie, Jan Debruyne, Danny Decoo, Gilles Defer, Tobias Derfuss, Norma H Deri, Bhupesh Dihenia, Peter Dioszeghy, Vladimir Donath, Benedicte Dubois, Martin Duddy, Pierre Duquette, Gilles Edan, Husnu Efendi, Stanton Elias, Peter J Emrich, Bonaventura Casanova Estruch, Evgeniy P Evdoshenko, Juergen Faiss, Alexander S Fedyanin, Wolfgang Feneberg, Jiske Fermont, Oscar Fernandez Fernandez, Francisco Coret Ferrer, Katharina Fink, Helen Ford, Corey Ford, Ada Francia, Mark Freedman, Benjamin Frishberg, Simonetta Galgani, George P Garmany, Klaus Gehring, Jeffrey Gitt, Claudio Gobbi, Lawrence P Goldstick, Rafael Arroyo Gonzalez, Francois Grandmaison, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Olga Grigorova, Luigi Maria Edoardo Grimaldi, Jeffrey Gross, Katrin Gross-Paju, Mark Gudesblatt, Daniel Guillaume, Judith Haas, Viera Hancinova, Anca Hancu, Orla Hardiman, Arndt Harmjanz, Fedor R Heidenreich, G. J.D. Hengstman, Joseph Herbert, Mark Herring, Suzanne Hodgkinson, Olaf M Hoffmann, Werner E Hofmann, William D Honeycutt, Le Hanh Hua, Dehui Huang, Yining Huang, Deren Huang, Raymond Hupperts, Piroska Imre, Alan Keith Jacobs, Gabor Jakab, Elzbieta Jasinska, Kenichi Kaida, Jolanta Kalnina, Ara Kaprelyan, Guntis Karelis, Dimitrios Karussis, Amos Katz, Farit A Khabirov, Bhupendra Khatri, Takashi Kimura, Ilya Kister, Rasa Kizlaitiene, Eleonora Klimova, Juergen Koehler, Aparna Komatineni, Anselm Kornhuber, Krisztina Kovacs, Agnes Koves, Wojciech Kozubski, Georgi Krastev, Lauren B Krupp, Egon Kurca, Christoph Lassek, Guy Laureys, Liesly Lee, Eckart Lensch, Fritz Leutmezer, Hongzeng Li, Ralf A Linker, Michael Linnebank, Petra Liskova, Cristina Llanera, Jiahong Lu, Andreas Lutterotti, Jan Lycke, Richard Macdonell, Maciej Maciejowski, Mathias Maeurer, Rim V Magzhanov, Eva-Maria Maida, Lina Malciene, Yang Mao-Draayer, Girolama Alessandra Marfia, Clyde Markowitz, Vasileios Mastorodimos, Klotild Matyas, Jose Meca-Lallana, Juan Antonio Garcia Merino, Ioan Gheorghe Mihetiu, Ivan Milanov, Aaron E Miller, Andrejs Millers, Masanori Mizuno, Xavier Montalban, Lilina Montoya, Masahiro Mori, Stefanie Mueller, Jin Nakahara, Yuji Nakatsuji, Scott Newsome, Richard Nicholas, A Scott Nielsen, Esmaeil Nikfekr, Ugo Nocentini, Chiyoko Nohara, Kyoichi Nomura, Miroslav M Odinak, Tomas Olsson, B. W. Van Oosten, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Patrick Oschmann, James Overell, Andrew Pachner, Gyula Panczel, Massimo Pandolfo, Caroline Papeix, Liliana Patrucco, Jean Pelletier, Raul Piedrabuena, Misha Pless, Udo Polzer, Krisztian Pozsegovits, Daiva Rastenyte, Sebastian Rauer, Gerd Reifschneider, Roberto Rey, Syed A Rizvi, Derrick Robertson, Jose Martinez Rodriguez, David Rog, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Vernon Rowe, Csilla Rozsa, Susan Rubin, Stanislaw Rusek, Francesco Saccà, Takahiko Saida, Antonio Vasco Salgado, Victoria Eugenia Fernandez Sanchez, Kalina Sanders, Maria Satori, Denis V Sazonov, Elio Angelo Scarpini, Eugen Schlegel, Myriam Schluep, Stephan Schmidt, Erich Scholz, H. M. Schrijver, Matthias Schwab, Raymond Schwartz, James Scott, Krzysztof Selmaj, Stuart Shafer, Basil Sharrack, Ivan A Shchukin, Yuko Shimizu, Penko Shotekov, Arno Siever, Karl-Otto Sigel, Scott Silliman, Magdolna Simo, Mihaela Simu, Vladimiro Sinay, Antonio Escartin Siquier, Aksel Siva, Ondrej Skoda, Andrew Solomon, Martin Stangel, Dusan Stefoski, Brian Steingo, Igor D Stolyarov, Pavel Stourac, Katrin Strassburger-Krogias, Erik Strauss, Olaf Stuve, Ivaylo Tarnev, Antonios Tavernarakis, Cristina Ramo Tello, Murat Terzi, Veronika Ticha, Marina Ticmeanu, Klaus Tiel-Wilck, Toomas Toomsoo, Niall Tubridy, Mark J Tullman, Hayrettin Tumani, Peter Turcani, Ben Turner, Antonio Uccelli, Francisco Javier Olascoaga Urtaza, Marta Vachova, Attila Valikovics, Silke Walter, Bart Van Wijmeersch, Ludo Vanopdenbosch, Joerg R Weber, Sara Weiss, Robert Weissert, Patrick Vermersch, Timothy West, Heinz Wiendl, Sandrine Wiertlewski, Brigitte Wildemann, Barbara Willekens, L. H. Visser, Galina Vorobeychik, Xianhao Xu, Takashi Yamamura, Yi N Yang, Sergio Martinez Yelamos, Michael Yeung, Alan Zacharias, Marvin Zelkowitz, Uwe Zettl, Meini Zhang, Hongyu Zhou, Ulf Zieman, Tjalf Ziemssen

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

290 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: No treatment has consistently shown efficacy in slowing disability progression in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We assessed the effect of siponimod, a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor1,5 modulator, on disability progression in patients with SPMS. Methods: This event-driven and exposure-driven, double-blind, phase 3 trial was done at 292 hospital clinics and specialised multiple sclerosis centres in 31 countries. Using interactive response technology to assign numbers linked to treatment arms, patients (age 18–60 years) with SPMS and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3·0–6·5 were randomly assigned (2:1) to once daily oral siponimod 2 mg or placebo for up to 3 years or until the occurrence of a prespecified number of confirmed disability progression (CDP) events. The primary endpoint was time to 3-month CDP. Efficacy was assessed for the full analysis set (ie, all randomly assigned and treated patients); safety was assessed for the safety set. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01665144. Findings: 1651 patients were randomly assigned between Feb 5, 2013, and June 2, 2015 (1105 to the siponimod group, and 546 to the placebo group). One patient did not sign the consent form, and five patients did not receive study drug, all of whom were in the siponimod group. 1645 patients were included in the analyses (1099 in the siponimod group and 546 in the placebo). At baseline, the mean time since first multiple sclerosis symptoms was 16·8 years (SD 8·3), and the mean time since conversion to SPMS was 3·8 years (SD 3·5); 1055 (64%) patients had not relapsed in the previous 2 years, and 918 (56%) of 1651 needed walking assistance. 903 (82%) patients receiving siponimod and 424 (78%) patients receiving placebo completed the study. 288 (26%) of 1096 patients receiving siponimod and 173 (32%) of 545 patients receiving placebo had 3-month CDP (hazard ratio 0·79, 95% CI 0·65–0·95; relative risk reduction 21%; p=0·013). Adverse events occurred in 975 (89%) of 1099 patients receiving siponimod versus 445 (82%) of 546 patients receiving placebo; serious adverse events were reported for 197 (18%) patients in the siponimod group versus 83 (15%) patients in the placebo group. Lymphopenia, increased liver transaminase concentration, bradycardia and bradyarrhythmia at treatment initiation, macular oedema, hypertension, varicella zoster reactivation, and convulsions occurred more frequently with siponimod than with placebo. Initial dose titration mitigated cardiac first-dose effects. Frequencies of infections, malignancies, and fatalities did not differ between groups. Interpretation: Siponimod reduced the risk of disability progression with a safety profile similar to that of other S1P modulators and is likely to be a useful treatment for SPMS. Funding: Novartis Pharma AG.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1263-1273
Numero di pagine11
RivistaThe Lancet
Volume391
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2018

Keywords

  • Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive / drug therapy*

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