Sense of agency and its disturbances: A systematic review targeting the intentional binding effect in neuropsychiatric disorders

Lorenzo Moccia, Michelangelo Di Luzio, Eliana Conte, Marco Modica, Marianna Ambrosecchia, Martina Ardizzi, Pierluigi Lanzotti, Georgios D. Kotzalidis, Delfina Janiri, Marco Di Nicola, Luigi Janiri, Vittorio Gallese, Gabriele Sani

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista


Sense of agency (SoA) indicates a person's ability to perceive her/his own motor acts as actually being her/his and, through them, to exert control over the course of external events. Disruptions in SoA may profoundly affect the individual's functioning, as observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. This is the first article to systematically review studies that investigated intentional binding (IB), a quantitative proxy for SoA measurement, in neurological and psychiatric patients. Eligible were studies of IB involving patients with neurological and/or psychiatric disorders. We included 15 studies involving 692 individuals. Risk of bias was low throughout studies. Abnormally increased action-outcome binding was found in schizophrenia and in patients with Parkinson's disease taking dopaminergic medications or reporting impulsive-compulsive behaviors. A decreased IB effect was observed in Tourette's disorder and functional movement disorders, whereas increased action-outcome binding was found in patients with the cortico-basal syndrome. The extent of IB deviation from healthy control values correlated with the severity of symptoms in several disorders. Inconsistent effects were found for autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, and borderline personality disorder. Findings pave the way for treatments specifically targeting SoA in neuropsychiatric disorders where IB is altered.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)3-18
Numero di pagine16
RivistaPsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2024


  • Parkinson's disease
  • intentional binding
  • mood disorders
  • schizophrenia
  • sense of agency


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