Reports about adrenocortical carcinomas (AC) mixed with sarcomatous areas are very rare. The terminology and pathogenesis of such biphasic tumors remain controversial. Herein, we report a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the adrenal gland in a 75-year-old woman who presented with left abdominal pain of one month's standing. The results of abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a large heterogeneous adrenal mass. A left adrenalectomy and complete splenectomy were performed. Histologically, the neoplasm showed areas of adrenocortical carcinoma and areas of sarcomatoid spindle cell proliferation. When examined immunohistochemically, the carcinomatous cells stained positively for S-100 protein, Melan-A protein, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and focally for vimentin and the cytokeratin marker MNF 116. Also, the carcinomatous cells were immunoreactive to the monoclonal antibody HMB-45. The sarcomatous component expressed vimentin, as well as other smooth and skeletal muscle markers. Liver metastases appeared 3 months postoperatively. Twelve months after removal of the primary tumor, the patient died of her disease. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of adrenal sarcomatoid carcinoma have been reported in the medical literature. We review the reported cases according to the 2004 classification of the World Health Organization (WHO) of lung tumors, and highlight the histogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical course of this very aggressive tumor.
- Sarcomatoid carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, adrenal cortical carcinoma, carcinoma, adrenal gland