Central nervous system degenerative diseases are often characterized by an early, strong reaction of astrocytes and microglia. Both these cell types can play a double role, protecting neurons against degeneration through the synthesis and secretion of trophic factors or inducing degeneration through the secretion of toxic molecules. Therefore, we studied the effects of S100B and trimethyltin (TMT) on human astrocytes and microglia with two glial models, primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes and a microglia cell line. After treatment with 10(-5) M TMT, astrocytes showed morphological alterations associated with an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and changes in GFAP filament organization. Administration of S100B before TMT treatment prevented TMT-induced changes in morphology and GFAP expression. A decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was observed in astrocytes treated with TMT, whereas the same treatment induced iNOS expression in microglia. In both cases, S100B prevented TMT-induced changes. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression in astrocytes was not modified by TMT treatment, whereas it was increased in microglia cells. S100B pretreatment blocked the TMT-induced increase in TNF-alpha expression in microglia. To trace the mechanisms involved in S100B activity, the effect of BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and of PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK-ERK1/2, were investigated. Results showed that the protective effects of S100B against TMT toxicity in astrocytes depend on NF-kappaB, but not on ERK1/2 activation. These results might help in understanding the role played by glial cells in brain injury after exposure to chemical neurotoxicants and support the view that S100B may protect brain cells in case of injury.
|Numero di pagine||10|
|Rivista||Journal of Neuroscience Research|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2005|
- glial cells