Chronic infantile neurological cutaneous articular (CINCA) syndrome is a rare autoinflammatory disorder driven by uncontrolled hypersecretion of interleukin (IL)-1, which can be clinically depicted by striking cutaneous, neurologic, and skeletal features. Little is known about the exact pathogenesis of CINCA bone disease, which mainly involves the knees. We report a 20-year-old CINCA patient, who was consecutively treated firstly with anakinra, started at 7 years, then with full dose canakinumab, started at 17 years, focusing on the typical bone abnormalities of the syndrome: the comparison of radiographs of knees performed at 7 and 20 years has shown the disappearance of a typical metaphyseal dysplasia occurring in the femurs of this CINCA patient, regularly treated with IL-1 blockade for a period of 13 years. A review of the medical literature reveals poor information on the skeletal response of CINCA syndrome to IL-1-inhibiting therapies. This contribution confirms the protean striking effects of IL-1 blockade in this peculiar autoinflammatory disorder, showing for the first time the reversal of the characteristic CINCA metaphyseal dysplasia over long-term treatment.
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