Benign or malignant conditions can present as pancreatic solid lesions (PSLs), and a thorough diagnostic workup is necessary to differentiate them. The need to acquire a tissue sample to reach a definitive diagnosis should be stratified by the findings at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a pancreatic protocol. Tissue biopsy is currently indicated in patients fit for chemotherapy in whom a metastatic tumor or a locally advanced unresectable lesion are discovered. For these patients, EUS-guided tissue acquisition, with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy represents the gold standard to provide a definitive cyto- and/or histopathologic diagnosis, with a high rate of accuracy. For resectable PSLs with a nonhypoenhancing MDCT pattern, which is not disease specific, a tissue diagnosis to distinguish benign from malignant etiologies appears mandatory. On the other hand, for hypo-enhancing PSLs, the debate of whether to obtain a preoperative definitive diagnosis still favors direct surgery. However, availability of novel EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy needles, which can ameliorate the negative predictive value of EUS-FNA and allow performance of DNA and RNA whole-genome extraction and RNA sequencing, coupled with the increasing evidence that preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be of value for these patients may change completely the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to resectable PSLs. These recent breakthroughs suggest the need for a new multidisciplinary consensus meeting to integrate them into the decision-making process assessing the need for preoperative tissue diagnosis in resectable PSLs.
- EUS-guided tissue acquisition
- pancreatic solid lesion
- resectable pancreatic mass