The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane's performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and minimization of negative interactions between the membrane material and blood components that define the membrane's bio(in)compatibility. Given the high concentration of plasma proteins and the complexity of structural functional relationships of this class of molecules, the performance of a membrane is highly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire. Proteomic investigations have been increasingly applied to describe the protein uremic milieu, to compare the blood purification efficiency of different dialyzer membranes or different extracorporeal techniques, and to evaluate the adsorption of plasma proteins onto hemodialysis membranes. In this article, we aim to highlight investigations in the hemodialysis setting making use of recent developments in proteomic technologies. Examples are presented of why proteomics may be helpful to nephrology and may possibly affect future directions in renal research.
- uremic toxins