The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic role of quantitative reduction of congestion during hospitalization assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) serial evaluations in patients admitted for acute heart failure (AHF).
AHF is a frequent reason for patients to be admitted. Exacerbation of chronic heart failure is linked with a progressive worsening of the disease with increased incidence of death. Fluid overload is the main mechanism underlying acute decompensation in these patients. BIVA is a validated technique able to quantify fluid overload.
a prospective, multicentre, observational study in AHF and no AHF patients in three Emergency Departments centres in Italy. Clinical data and BIVA evaluations were performed at admission (t0) and discharge (tdis). A follow-up phone call was carried out at 90 days.
Three hundred and thirty-six patients were enrolled (221 AHF and 115 no AHF patients). We found that clinical signs showed the most powerful prognostic relevance. In particular the presence of rales and lower limb oedema at tdis were linked with events relapse at 90 days. At t0, congestion detected by BIVA was observed only in the AHF group, and significantly decreased at tdis. An increase of resistance variation (dR/H) >11 Ω/m during hospitalization was associated with survival. BIVA showed significant results in predicting total events, both at t0 (area under the curve (AUC) 0.56, p<0.04) and at tdis (AUC 0.57, p<0.03). When combined with clinical signs, BIVA showed a very good predictive value for cardiovascular events at 90 days (AUC 0.97, p<0.0001).
In AHF patients, an accurate physical examination evaluating the presence of rales and lower limbs oedema remains the cornerstone in the management of patients with AHF. A congestion reduction, obtained as a consequence of therapies and detected through BIVA analysis, with an increase of dR/H >11 Ω/m during hospitalization seems to be associated with increased 90 day survival in patients admitted for AHF.
- Acute heart failure
- bioelectrical impedance analysis