Black rot, caused by the fungus Guignardia bidwellii, is a polycyclic disease affecting grape leaves and berries. In environmentally controlled experiments and in a 3-year field study, the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) were assessed on the following growth parameters of G. bidwellii: (i) formation of pycnidia and cirri in grape leaf lesions, (ii) production and germination of conidia, and (iii) length of the period between lesion appearance and pycnidia production. Pycnidia were produced between 5 and 35°C and at 90 to 100% RH but more pycnidia were produced between 20 and 30°C. No pycnidia were produced at RH < 90%. The first pycnidia were produced in approximately 2 days after lesion appearance at ≥20°C and in 8 days at 5°C; pycnidia continued to be produced on the same lesion for 5 to 16 days after lesion appearance, depending on the temperature. Models were developed to describe the effect of temperature and RH on pycnidia production, accounting for 95 and 97% of variability, respectively. Cirri were extruded only between 15 and 35°C and mainly at 100% RH. Field experiments confirmed that pycnidia are produced for several days on a leaf lesion and that the length of the period between lesion appearance and pycnidia production depends on temperature. Overall, the findings showed that production of conidia requires high humidity; under field conditions, some hours at high humidity, which usually occur at nighttime, rather than constant high humidity may be sufficient.
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science