Introduction: Burnout syndrome (BOS) is a psychological syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment. This umbrella review aimed to investigate BOS among healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses concerning the prevalence of BOS among physicians, nurses, medical students and other HCWs, and its associated factors was conducted across PubMed Central/Medline, Cochrane Library, PROSPERO and Epistemonikos databases. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses from inception to 15 January 2020 and restricted to English language documents were included. Results: A total of 43 studies met the full inclusion criteria and were included. Among them, there were 3 meta-analyses, 26 systematic reviews, and 14 systematic reviews with meta-analysis. The prevalence of BOS was highest among nurses, younger persons, and trainees. The most frequent risk factors associated with BOS included stress, lack of family support, and organizational risk factors such as prolonged night shifts, length of experience, and exposure to traumatic events. Individual coping strategies such as exercise and communication with peers, and organizational strategies such as periodic review of shift schedule should be undertaken. Discussion: BOS has profound effects on the mental health states of HCWs. Individuals and the hospital authority need to pay specific attention to work-related stress risk factors to improve the psychological well-being of HCWs.
- burnout, occupational medicine, psychosocial risk,