Despite its discovery 100 years ago, vitamin D (VD) has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. In the past few years, a growing interest in VD has been observed in the biomedical literature due to evidences demonstrating a relevant relationship not only between regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, but also multiple disease states and low VD status in the population. Indeed, several studies carried out to decipher its role in the body in almost every cell, tissue, and different organs. Recent findings suggested a significant implication of VD in different physiologic processes , such as vascular health, immune function, metabolism, and placental function. In the attempt to focus the attention on effect of VD on female reproductive health, there has been a paucity of data from randomized controlled trials to establish clear beneficial. Human and animal data suggest that low VD status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Findings from observational studies show higher rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, and bacterial vaginosis in women with low VD levels. By recent evidences, this review explored the association between maternal VD status and selected effects on maternal, perinatal, and infant health, and the impact of VD supplementation during pregnancy on obstetric well-being.
- Beneficial effects