Perinatal Origins of Adult Disease and Opportunities for Health Promotion: A Narrative Review

Stefano Nobile, Chiara Di Sipio Morgia, Giovanni Vento

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

Abstract

The "developmental origins of health and disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis refers to the influence of early developmental exposures and fetal growth on the risk of chronic diseases in later periods. During fetal and early postnatal life, cell differentiation and tissue formation are influenced by several factors. The interaction between genes and environment in prenatal and early postnatal periods appears to be critical for the onset of multiple diseases in adulthood. Important factors influencing this interaction include genetic predisposition, regulation of gene expression, and changes in microbiota. Premature birth and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are other important factors considered by the DOHaD hypothesis. Preterm birth is associated with impaired or arrested structural or functional development of key organs/systems, making preterm infants vulnerable to cardiovascular, respiratory, and chronic renal diseases during adulthood. Growth restriction, defined as impaired fetal growth compared to expected biological potential in utero, is an additional negative factor increasing the risk of subsequent diseases. Environmental factors implicated in the developmental programming of diseases include exposure to pollution, stress, drugs, toxic agents, nutrition, and exercise. The DOHaD may explain numerous conditions, including cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, neuropsychiatric, and renal diseases. Potential antenatal and postnatal preventive measures, interventions, and future directions are discussed.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)N/A-N/A
RivistaJournal of Personalized Medicine
Volume12
DOI
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2022

Keywords

  • development
  • developmental programming
  • disease
  • health
  • origin
  • perinatal.

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