Pegbovigrastim is a commercial long-acting analog of bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rbG-CSF) that promotes the increased count and functionality of polymorphonuclear cells in dairy cows around the time of parturition. We hypothesized that pegbovigrastim administered to periparturient cows at approximately seven days before parturition and within 24 hours after calving could affect the profiles of gene networks involved in leukocyte function. Blood was collected on Day 3 after calving from treated groups (pegbovigrastim (PEG); 13 Simmental (seven multiparous and six primiparous) and 13 Holstein (seven multiparous and six primiparous) cows) that received pegbovigrastim (Imrestor; Elanco Animal Health) and controls (CTR; 13 Simmental (seven multiparous and six primiparous) and 13 Holstein (six multiparous and seven primiparous) cows) that received saline solution. Blood from all cows was sampled from the jugular vein in a PAXgene Blood RNA System tube (Preanalytix, Hombrechtikon, Switzerland) for RNA extraction. The RT-qPCR analysis was performed to investigate a panel of 34 genes of interest, representing recognition, immune mediation, migration, cell adhesion, antimicrobial strategies, inflammatory cascade, oxidative pattern, and leukotrienes in whole blood leukocytes. Normalized data were subjected to the MIXED model of SAS (ver. 9.4) with treatment, breed, parity, and their interaction as fixed effects. Compared with CTR, whole blood leukocytes of PEG cows had higher expression of genes involved in recognition and immune modulation (CD14, CD16, MYD88, TLR2, and TLR4), cell adhesion (ITGB2, ITGAL, TLN1, SELL, SELPLG, and CD44), antimicrobial activity (MMP9, LTF, and LCN2), and inflammatory cascade (CASP1, TNFRSF1A, IL1B, IL1R, IL18, IRAK1, NLRP3, and S100A8). This suggested an improvement of migration, adhesion, and antimicrobial ability and an enhanced inflammatory response, which in turn could trigger immune cell activation and enhance function. Expression of SOD2 and ALOX5 was also greater in the PEG group. In contrast, compared with CTR cows, PEG led to lower expression of RPL13A, ALOX15, IL8, and TNF. Overall, leukocytes from Simmental compared with Holstein cows had greater expression of IDO1, RPL13A, ALOX5, CD44, CX3CR1, ITGB2, and TNFA, whereas expression of CD16 and TLR2 was lower. Overall, compared with multiparous cows, primiparous cows had higher expression of IL1B, IL18, MYD88, SELL, and TLR2 and lower expression of MMP9. Simmental cows seemed more sensitive to induction of the immune system after calving, as revealed by the greater abundance of genes involved in immune system adaptation, regardless of pegbovigrastim treatment. Primiparous cows undergoing a new stress condition with respect to older cows were characterized by leukocytes with a higher inflammatory response. In conclusion, pegbovigrastim led to higher expression levels of most genes involved in the processes investigated, suggesting a thorough activation of the immune machinery during the critical post-partum period.