Stimulants are banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) if used “in competition”. Being the analysis of stimulants presently carried out on urine samples only, it might be useful, for a better interpretation of analytical data, to discriminate between an early intake of the substance and an administration specifically aimed to improve the sport performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the differences, in terms of excretion/disappearance of drugs, between urine and oral fluid, a sample that can reflect plasmatic concentrations. Oral fluid and urine samples were collected following oral administration of the following stimulants: modafinil (100 mg), selegiline (10 mg), crotetamide/cropropamide (50mg each), pentetrazol (100 mg), ephedrine (12 mg), sibutramine (10 mg), mate de coca (a dose containing about 3mg of cocaine); analysis of drugs/metabolites was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in both body fluids. Our results showthat both the absolute concentrations and their variation as a function of time, in urine and in oral fluid, are generally markedly different, being the drugs eliminated from urinemuch more slowly than from oral fluid. Our results also suggest that the analysis of oral fluid could be used to successfully complement the data obtained from urine for “in competition” anti-doping tests; in all those cases in which the metabolite(s) concentration of a substance in urine is very low and the parent compound is not detected, it is indeed impossible, relying on urinary data only, to discriminate between recent administrations of small doses and remote administrations of higher doses.
- Biological samples
- Doping analysis
- Drug monitoring/drug screening
- Mass spectrometry
- Oral fluid and urine analysis