Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is associated with multi-hormonal derangement depicting a prevalence of catabolic vs. anabolic axes. Moreover, thyroid adaption is characterized by the reduced conversion of thyroxine to the active hormone triiodothyronine. On the other hand, hormones modulate synthesis and utilization of antioxidant systems. Therefore, hormonal failure can cause unbalance between reactive radical species and the defenses, resulting in oxidative stress (OS). OS is well described in CHF, but the relationship with the hormonal picture is not entirely known. In the present review, we firstly analyze the mechanisms of ROS production in the heart, discussing animal and human studies, and focusing on new discovered protective mechanisms such as sirtuins and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). The second section is dedicated to the role of main anabolic axes influencing antioxidant systems. Finally, we present some data supporting the hypothesis that OS could be the link between hormonal derangement and clinical outcome of CHF.
|Numero di pagine
|European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
|Stato di pubblicazione
|Pubblicato - 2018
- Oxidative stress