Purpose: Oncotype DX (ODX) predicts breast cancer recurrence risk, guiding the choice of adjuvant treatment. In many countries, access to the test is not always available. We used correlation between phenotypical tumor characteristics, quantitative classical immunohistochemistry (IHC), and recurrence score (RS) assessed by ODX to develop a decision supporting system for clinical use.
Patients and methods: Breast cancer patients who underwent ODX testing between 2014 and 2018 were retrospectively included in the study. The data selected for analysis were age, menopausal status, and pathologic and IHC features. IHC was performed with standardized quantitative methods. The data set was split into two subsets: 70% for the training set and 30% for the internal validation set. Statistically significant features were included in logistic models to predict RS ≤ 25 or ≤ 20. Another set was used for external validation to test reproducibility of prediction models.
Results: The internal set included 407 patients. Mean (range) age was 53.7 (31-80) years, and 222 patients (54.55%) were > 50 years old. ODX results showed 67 patients (16.6%) had RS between 0 and 10, 272 patients between 11 and 25 (66.8%), and 68 patients > 26 (16.6%). Logistic regression analysis showed that RS score (for threshold ≤ 25) was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (P = .004), progesterone receptor (P < .0001), and Ki-67 (P < .0001). Generalized linear regression resulted in a model that had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 92.2 (sensitivity 84.2%, specificity 80.1%) and that was well calibrated. The external validation set (183 patients) analysis confirmed the model performance, with an AUC of 82.3 and a positive predictive value of 91%. A nomogram was generated for further prospective evaluation to predict RS ≤ 25.
Conclusion: RS was related to quantitative IHC in patients with RS ≤ 25, with a good performance of the statistical model in both internal and external validation. A nomogram for enhancing clinical approach in a cost-effective manner was developed. Prospective studies must test this application in clinical practice.
- Adjuvant chemotherapy
- Breast cancer
- Decision supporting system
- Health costs
- Quantitative IHC