We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study a thermally isolated conformal field theory in four dimensions which undergoes a repeated deformation by an external periodic time-dependent source coupled to an operator of dimension Δ. The initial state of the theory is taken to be at a finite temperature. We compute the energy dissipated in the system as a function of the frequency and of the dimension Δ of the perturbing operator. This is done in the linear response regime. In order to study the details of thermalization in the dual field theory, the leading-order backreaction on the AdS black brane metric is computed. The evolution of the event and the apparent horizons is monitored; the increase of area in each cycle coincides with the increase in the equilibrium entropy corresponding to the amount of energy dissipated. The time evolution of the entanglement entropy of a spherical region and that of the two-points function of a probe operator with a large dimension are also inspected; we find a delay in the thermalization of these quantities which is proportional to the size of the region which is being probed. Thus, the delay is more pronounced in the infrared. We comment on a possible transition in the time evolution of the energy fluctuations.
- AdS/CFT Correspondence