Background: Hemodialysis patients present a dramatic increase in cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Circulating immune cells, activated by both uremic milieu and dialysis, play a key role in the pathogenesis of dialysis-related vascular disease. The aim of our study was to identify, through a high-throughput approach, differences in gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients treated with on-line hemodiafiltration and bicarbonate hemodialysis. Methods: The transcriptomic profile was investigated in PBMCs isolated from eight patients on on-line hemodiafiltration and eight patients on bicarbonate hemodialysis by microarray analysis. The results were evaluated by statistical and functional pathway analysis and validated by real time PCR (qPCR) in an independent cohort of patients (on-line hemodiafiltration N = 20, bicarbonate hemodialysis n = 20). Results: Eight hundred and forty-seven genes were differentially expressed in patients treated with on-line hemodiafiltration and bicarbonate hemodialysis. Thirty-seven functional gene networks were identified and atherosclerosis signaling was the top canonical pathway regulated by on-line hemodiafiltration. Among the genes of this pathway, on-line hemodiafiltration was associated with a reduced expression of Platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF A), Clusterin, Monoamine Oxidase A, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Vascular Endothelial GrowthFactor C (VEGF-)C and with an increase of Apolipoprotein E. qPCR confirmed the microarray results. Platelet derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), IL-6 and VEGF-C serum levels were significantly lower in the on-line hemodiafiltration group. Finally, 10 patients previously on bicarbonate hemodialysis were switched to on-line hemodiafiltration and PBMCs were harvested after 6 months. The qPCR results from this perspective group confirmed the modulation of atherosclerotic genes observed in the cross-sectional analysis. Conclusions: Our data suggest that type of dialysis (on-line hemodiafiltration versus bicarbonate hemodialysis) may modulate the expression of several genes involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Gene expression