The gut microbiome is increasingly being recognized for its influence on intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders such as cancer. Today, diet is the most studied environmental modulator of gut microbiota, capable of altering or improving it in terms of richness and diversity. Recent evidence from several preclinical and clinical trials suggested that gut microbiota composition could modulate cancer therapies (toxicities, treatment responses) and vice versa. This review highlights the latest research on the bidirectional associations between gut microbiota and cancer. We also dissect the role of gut microbiota during cancer therapies in terms of toxicity and treatment response and, in turn, how cancer therapies could impact gut microbiota composition and functions. In this context, we summarize the state-of-the-art research regarding the role of various nutritional interventions—prebiotics, dietary strategies, and dietary restrictions—as cutting-edge possibilities to modulate gut microbiota during cancer therapies.
- Cancer treatment
- Gut microbiota