New perspectives in antibiotic prophylaxis for intra-abdominal surgery

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

18 Citazioni (Scopus)

Abstract

Effective management of intra-abdominal infections requires a combination of preoperative preparation, antibiotic prophylaxis and appropriate surgical technique. Antibacterial prophylaxis should provide coverage of all likely pathogens, including aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Whereas antibacterial combination therapy is appropriate in certain situations, single-agent prophylaxis is appropriate for the majority of patients and ampicillin/sulbactam, with its broad-spectrum anti-aerobic/anti-anaerobic activity, is an attractive prophylactic option. Surgery involving the gastrointestinal tract provides a special challenge by virtue of its high, predominantly anaerobic, bacterial load. However, the requirement for prophylaxis varies depending upon the precise site of intervention. Biliary tract surgery requires prophylaxis in high-risk patients only, whereas hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery requires prophylaxis in all patients. Gastroduodenal operations require prophylaxis in the presence of risk factors, such as abnormal gastric acidity or bleeding. Colorectal procedures present a high risk of anaerobic infection and sepsis, and require adequate prophylaxis combined with a thorough preoperative preparation designed to reduce considerably the bacterial load of the bowel. Where peritonitis does follow intra-abdominal surgery, patients should receive antibacterial therapy commensurate with the risk of serious infection. A small proportion of patients will be at risk of severe infection and will require triple-agent therapy. However, most patients are likely to develop mild-to-moderate infections only and can be treated with a single, broad-spectrum antibiotic agent, such as ampicillin/sulbactam, a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)S17-S17-21
RivistaTHE JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL INFECTION
Volume50 Suppl A
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2002

Keywords

  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis
  • Cost of Illness
  • Cross Infection
  • Humans
  • Infection Control
  • Laparotomy
  • Morbidity
  • Needs Assessment
  • Patient Selection
  • Peritonitis
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • United States

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