BACKGROUND: Carotid intimamedia thickness (c-IMT), arterial stiffness (AS) and vascular calcification (VC) are now considered important new markers of atherosclerosis and have been associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular events. An accurate, reproducible and easy detection of these parameters could increase the prognostic value of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in many subjects at low and intermediate risk. Today, c-IMT and AS can be measured by ultrasound,while cardiac computed tomography is the gold standard to quantify coronary VC, although concern about the reproducibility of the former and the safety of the latter have been raised. Nevertheless, a safe and reliable method to quantify non-coronary (i.e., peripheral) VC has not been detected yet. AIM: To review the most innovative and accurate ultrasound-based modalities of c-IMT and AS detection and to describe a novel Ultra-Sound-Based Carotid, Aortic and Lower limbs Calcification Score (USB-CALCs, simply named CALC), allowing to quantify peripheral calcifications. Finally, to propose a system for cardiovascular risk reclassification derived from the global evaluation of “Quality Intima-Media Thickness”, “Quality Arterial Stiffness”, and “CALC score” in addition to the Framingham score.
|Numero di pagine||12|
|Rivista||European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences|
|Stato di pubblicazione||Pubblicato - 2015|
- Arterial Stiffness
- CALC score
- Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
- Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed