The aim of this article is to give an overview of some recent advances of nanotechnology in medicine and bone tissue engineering, exploring typical applications of these emerging technologies. Currently, limitations in bone regenerative strategies include insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds. Thus, we review the major area of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 57:644–650, 2017. © 2017 Society of Plastics Engineers.