Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass and strength/function, is a prototypical geroscience condition. The dissection of muscle-specific molecular pathways through analyses of tissue biopsies has provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of sarcopenia. However, such an approach is unsuitable for capturing the dynamic nature of the condition. Furthermore, the muscle sampling procedure may be perceived as burdensome especially by multimorbid, frail older adults. To overcome these limitations, sophisticated statistical methods have been devised for the simultaneous analysis of circulating factors related to the multiple domains of sarcopenia. This approach has shown potential for achieving a more comprehensive appraisal of the condition, unveiling new therapeutic targets, and identifying meaningful biomarkers. Here, we discuss the main pathogenetic pathways of sarcopenia, with a focus on mediators that are currently in the spotlight as biomarkers and potential treatment targets.