Despite being members of gut microbiota, Enterobacteriaceae are associated with many severe infections such as bloodstream infections. The β-lactam drugs have been the cornerstone of antibiotic therapy for such infections. However, the overuse of these antibiotics has contributed to select β-lactam-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates, so that β-lactam resistance is nowadays a major concern worldwide. The production of enzymes that inactivate β-lactams, mainly extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases, can confer multidrug resistance patterns that seriously compromise therapeutic options. Further, β-lactam resistance may result in increases in the drug toxicity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with Enterobacteriaceae infections. Here, we summarize the updated evidence about the molecular mechanisms and epidemiology of β-lactamase-mediated β-lactam resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, and their potential impact on clinical outcomes of β-lactam-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.
- Molecular resistance
- β-lactam drugs