Mitochondrial dysfunction, protein misfolding and neuroinflammation in parkinson’s disease: Roads to biomarker discovery

Anna Picca, Flora Guerra, Riccardo Calvani, Roberta Romano, Hélio Josécoelho-Júnior, Cecilia Bucci, Emanuele Marzetti

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivistapeer review


Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease among older adults. PD neuropathology is marked by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and the widespread accumulation of misfolded intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn). Genetic mutations and post-translational modifications, such as α-syn phos-phorylation, have been identified among the multiple factors supporting α-syn accrual during PD. A decline in the clearance capacity of the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosomal systems, together with mitochondrial dysfunction, have been indicated as major pathophysiological mechanisms of PD neurodegeneration. The accrual of misfolded α-syn aggregates into soluble oligomers, and the generation of insoluble fibrils composing the core of intraneuronal Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites observed during PD neurodegeneration, are ignited by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS activate the α-syn aggregation cascade and, together with the Lewy bodies, promote neurodegeneration. However, the molecular pathways underlying the dynamic evolution of PD remain undeciphered. These gaps in knowledge, together with the clinical heterogeneity of PD, have hampered the identification of the biomarkers that may be used to assist in diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and prognostication. Herein, we illustrate the main pathways involved in PD pathogenesis and discuss their possible exploitation for biomarker discovery.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-21
Numero di pagine21
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2021


  • Alpha-synuclein
  • Beta-amyloid (Aβ)
  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokine
  • DAMPs
  • Dopaminergic Neurons
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Humans
  • Inflam-mation
  • Lewy Bodies
  • Mitochondria
  • Mitochondrial-derived vesicles
  • Mitophagy
  • Neurofilaments light chain (NfL)
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases
  • P-tau pathology
  • Parkinson Disease
  • Protein Aggregates
  • Proteostasis Deficiencies
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • alpha-Synuclein


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