Methylation Profile of X-Chromosome–Related Genes in Male Breast Cancer

Maria P. Foschini, Luca Morandi, Alejandro M. Sanchez, Angela Santoro, Antonino Mulè, Gian Franco Zannoni, Zsuzsanna Varga, Linda Moskovszky, Maria C. Cucchi, Cathy B. Moelans, Gianluca Giove, Paul J. Van Diest, Riccardo Masetti

Risultato della ricerca: Contributo in rivistaArticolo in rivista

1 Citazioni (Scopus)


Background: Androgen receptor (AR) has been described to play a prominent role in male breast cancer (MBC). It maps on chromosome X, and recent reports indicate that X-chromosome polysomy is frequent in MBC. Since the response to anti-androgen therapy may depend on AR polysomy and on its overexpression similarly to prostate cancer, the aim of the present study was to investigate the DNA methylation level of AR and its coregulators, especially those mapped on the X-chromosome, that may influence the activity of AR in MBC. Methods: The DNA methylation level of AR, MAGEA2, MAGEA11, MAGEC1, MAGEC2, FLNA, HDAC6, and UXT, mapped on the X-chromosome, was evaluated by quantitative bisulfite-NGS. Bioinformatic analysis was performed in a Galaxy Project environment using BWA-METH, MethylDackel, and Methylation Plotter tools. The study population consisted of MBC (41 cases) compared with gynecomastia (17 cases). Results: MAGEA family members, especially MAGEA2, MAGEA11, MAGEC, and UXT and HDAC6 showed hypomethylation of several CpGs, reaching statistical significance by the Kruskal–Wallis test (p < 0.01) in MBC when compared to gynecomastia. AR showed almost no methylation at all. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated for the first time that MAGEA family members mapped on the X-chromosome and coregulators of AR are hypomethylated in MBC. This may lead to their overexpression, enhancing AR activity.
Lingua originaleEnglish
pagine (da-a)1-10
Numero di pagine10
RivistaFrontiers in Oncology
Stato di pubblicazionePubblicato - 2020


  • DNA methylation
  • FLNA
  • HDAC6
  • MAGE family
  • UXT
  • X-chromosome
  • androgen receptor
  • male breast cancer


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