Vinegar is an inexpensive commodity, and economic considerations require that a relatively low-cost raw material be used for its production. An investigation into the use of a new, alternative substrate – pineapple waste – is described. This approach enables the utilization of the pineapple's (Ananas comosus) peels and core, which are usually discarded during the processing or consumption of the fruit. Using physical and enzymatic treatments, the waste was saccharified, and the resulting substrate was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 7–10 days under aerobic conditions at 25 °C. This resulted in an alcohol yield of approximately 7%. The alcoholic medium was then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation using Acetobacter aceti as the inoculum for approximately 30 days at 32 °C to obtain 5% acetic acid. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and end of the acetification cycle to assess the volatile and fixed compounds by GC–MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS. The metabolomic analysis indicated that L-lysine, mellein, and gallic acid were significantly more concentrated in the pineapple vinegar than in the original wine. Higher alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones characterized the aroma of the final pineapple vinegar, whilst off-flavors were significantly reduced relative to the initial wine. This study is the first to highlight the metabolite profile of fruit vinegar with a slight floral aroma profile derived from pineapple waste. The potential to efficiently reduce the post-harvest losses of pineapple fruits by re-using them for products with added food values is also demonstrated.
- Acetic fermentation