Simple Summary: Elucidating the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the communication mechanisms between cancer and endothelial cells (ECs) within the tumor microenvironment is an exciting challenge. At the same time, due to their ability to convey bioactive molecules, EVs may be potentially relevant from a therapeutic perspective for diverse vascular pathologies. Abstract: Intercellular communication is a key biological mechanism that is fundamental to maintain tissue homeostasis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as critical regulators of cell–cell communication in both physiological and pathological conditions, due to their ability to shuttle a variety of cell constituents, such as DNA, RNA, lipids, active metabolites, cytosolic, and cell surface proteins. In particular, endothelial cells (ECs) are prominently regulated by EVs released by neighboring cell types. The discovery that cancer cell-derived EVs can control the functions of ECs has prompted the investigation of their roles in tumor angiogenesis and cancer progression. In particular, here, we discuss evidence that supports the roles of exosomes in EC regulation within the tumor microenvironment and in vascular dysfunction leading to atherosclerosis. Moreover, we survey the molecular mechanisms and exosomal cargoes that have been implicated in explanations of these regulatory effects.
- endothelial cells
- extracellular vesicles