Placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have attracted more attention for their immune modulatory properties and poor immunogenicity, which makes them suitable for allogeneic transplantation. Although MSC isolated from different areas of the placenta share several features, they also present significant biological differences, which might point to distinct clinical applications. Hence, we compared cells from full term placenta distinguishing them on the basis of their origin, either maternal or fetal. We used cells developed by Pluristem LTD: PLacenta expanded mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells (PLX), maternal-derived cells (PLX-PAD), fetal-derived cells (PLX-R18), and amniotic membrane-derived MSC (hAMSC). We compared immune modulatory properties evaluating effects on T-lymphocyte proliferation, expression of cytotoxicity markers, T-helper and T-regulatory cell polarization, and monocyte differentiation toward antigen presenting cells (APC). Furthermore, we investigated cell immunogenicity. We show that MSCs and MSC-like cells from both fetal and maternal sources present immune modulatory properties versus lymphoid (T cells) and myeloid (APC) cells, whereby fetal-derived cells (PLX-R18 and hAMSC) have a stronger capacity to modulate immune cell proliferation and differentiation. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding the cell origin and characteristics in order to obtain a desired result, such as modulation of the inflammatory response that is critical in fostering regenerative processes.
- PLX: PLacenta expanded mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells
- amniotic membrane
- human placenta
- mesenchymal stromal cells